Aufsatz zur Waisenhäusern in der Frühen Neuzeit im neuesten Heft der ÖZG 25 (2014), 1+2, erschienen

…Mar­tin Scheutz gibt zunächst einen Überblick über die Grün­dung der Waisen­häuser vom 14. bis zum 19. Jahrhun­dert und unter­sucht dann die aus­geprägt mil­itärischen und schulis­chen Struk­turen des Waisen­haus­es am Wiener Ren­nweg unter der Führung des jesuit­is­chen „Kinder­gen­er­als“ Ignaz Parhamer. …

Mar­tin Scheutz: Pater Kinder­gen­er­al und Jan­itscharen­musik. Öster­re­ichis­che Waisen­häuser der Frühen Neuzeit im Span­nungs­feld von Arbeit, Erziehung und Reli­gion, in: Öster­re­ichis­che Zeitschrift für Geschichtswis­senschaften 25 (2014), S. 41–81.

Abstract: Father Child Gen­er­al and Janis­saries‘ Music. Aus­tri­an Orphan­ages in Ear­ly Mod­ern Time between Edu­ca­tion, Reli­gion and Work­house. The cen­tu­ry between 1650 and 1750 was often being con­sid­ered as the „cen­tu­ry of orphan­ages“, which is part­ly true for Hab­s­burg monar­chy. Found­ed by sec­u­lar and reli­gious pow­er a small num­ber of orphan­ages were estab­lished in the cities of Graz, Linz, Salzburg and Vien­na. The insti­tu­tion emerged from the old civic hos­pi­tal (Bürg­er­spi­tal) but also from the ear­ly mod­ern pen­i­ten­tiaries and work­hous­es. Dur­ing the reign of Maria There­sa the reor­ga­nized state pushed a type of mer­can­tile chil­dren insti­tu­tion which was ini­tial­ly close to man­u­fac­to­ry. Due to fail­ure of these there­sian mer­can­tilist insti­tu­tions orphan­ages changed into a kind of breed­ing ground of mil­i­tary virtue which became dis­cussed among the enlight­ened catholic and protes­tant schol­ars (Friedrich Nico­lai and oth­ers). Chil­dren between the age of six and six­teen found shel­ter in this insti­tu­tion­al halfway of work­house, man­u­fac­to­ry, school, monastery and pen­i­ten­tiary. The dis­pute on orphan­ages („Waisen­hausstre­it“) in the 1760s raised eco­nom­ic, ped­a­gog­i­cal and con­fes­sion­al ques­tions. In the 1780s Joseph II decid­ed to close the there­sian orphan­ages and orphans were hand­ed over to fos­ter-par­ents. In the wake of this dis­pute work­ing con­di­tions for chil­dren were debat­ed, but also edu­ca­tion, school, and child care in gen­er­al. The high mor­tal­i­ty rates (orphan­ages as open bur­ial shafts) turned out to be not the least point of dis­cus­sion. Mid of 19th cen­tu­ry saw the rein­ven­tion of insti­tu­tion­al care for orphans — pen­du­lum of argu­ments was swing­ing back.

Key Words: Orphan­ages in Hab­s­burg monar­chy, care for chil­dren in insti­tu­tion, dis­putes on orphanges („Waisen­hausstre­it“), Enlight­en­ment mer­can­til­ism, mil­i­ta­riza­tion of childhood.