Gerhard Poelzl, and Elisabeth Groll-Knapp (in press). BACKGROUND NOISE
MODULATES CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM ACTIVITY OF VISUAL-SPATIAL ATTENTION.
In this experiment, the influence of background noise was investigated on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and brain DC potentials from a spatial attention task. Visual-spatial attention was cued trial-by-trial for 7 min lasting tasks in 2 blocks with and without background noise (a mixture of irrelevant speech, street noise and yelping dogs of 60 dB(A) presented by loudspeakers in front of the subjects). Task-related stimuli were presented lateralized to a fixation point after the presentation on a cueing signal (to guide visual-spatial attention). Ten subjects had to respond only to infrequent relevant (attended) target stimuli. EEG was recorded from skin-punctured locations at parietal and occipital locations with DC amplifiers referred to linked mastoids and digitised by 250 Hz. ERPs of relevant non-target stimuli were analysed, by reason of non-contamination with movement-related brain activity and DC potentials for the whole time-on-task in each block. Event-related potentials showed a P300-like positive slow wave (PSW) at central and parietal locations which was reduced in the background noise condition (only results of PSW and DC potentials from midline electrodes will be reported here). During time-on-task the DC potential changes at all midline electrodes became successive positive during the presentation of noise. This was found in both blocks of the noise condition indicating (1) a reliable recording of the DC potential and (2) a functional relationship of background noise and a positive DC potential change. Taken into account earlier findings on the impact of DC potential shift on ERPs, it is suggested that the reduced amplitude of the P300-like positive slow wave may be caused by the positive change of the resting DC potential according to a suggested floor/ceiling effect of brain DC potentials on event-related potentials. As noise effects were also found for behavioral response data, it seems that the analysis of ERPs and brain DC potentials are a sensitive indication of the impact of environmental background noise on central nervous activity of a cognitive task.
Trimmel und Gabriele Gmeiner (2001). Partnerschaftliches Interaktionsverhalten
und Stressverarbeitung von Migränepatientinnen. Psychotherapie,
Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie, 51, 430-433.
Das verhaltensmedizinische Modell legt nahe, dass eine nicht effiziente, negative Kommunikation einen wesentlichen Belastungsfaktor im alltäglichen Zusammenleben der Migränepaare darstellt und es dadurch zu einer Chronifizierung des Migränegeschehens kommt. Die vorliegende Untersuchung prüfte anhand des Kategoriensystems für partnerschaftliche Interaktion (KPI) ob sich 12 Migränepatientinnen mit ihren männlichen Partnern von 12 Kopfschmerzpaaren und 12 gesunden Kontrollpaaren in ihrem Gesprächsverhalten in einer persönlich relevanten Konfliktsituation unterscheiden. Die auf Video aufgezeichneten ca. 10-minütigen Gespräche zeigten die erwarteten Unterschiede: Migränepaare hatten weniger positive und mehr negative Kommunikation als die anderen beiden Untersuchungsgruppen. Eine gesteigerte Belastung der Migränepatientinnen konnte auch durch höhere Werte in der Stressverarbeitung aufgezeigt werden.
Strässler, F., & Knerer, K. (2001). Brain DC potential changes
(DCPC) of computerized tasks and paper/pencil tasks. International Journal
of Psychophysiology, 40, 187-194.
Abstract: Analysis of slow cortical potentials and their topography is currently discussed as an indication of cortical activity associated with cognitive operations/performance. In this paper changes of the EEG DC potential were analyzed in two computerized tasks (correcting typing errors, performing Excel) and two paper/pencil tasks (correcting typing errors, a cognitive test) to assess mental load related to ergonomical and task characteristics. DC recordings were analyzed for the mean values of baseline and the first and the second 4 minutes of each task from 24 persons. A 2 (computer usage experience low vs. high) X 4 (Task) X 3 (Time: baseline, first half of task, second half) X 6 (Lead) MANOVA of DC potential changes (DCPCs) showed at F3, F4 and C3 positive DCPCs for paper/pencil tasks and negative DCPCs for computerized tasks. Ratings of task difficulty were related to high versus low task demands, whereas DCPCs were related to task medium, time on task and lead. Highly experienced persons showed a pronounced left-right difference at parietal locations and at frontal and central locations related to task medium by trend. Results were interpreted as higher cortical activation associated with mental load caused by additional attentional/controlling demands of computerized tasks. Keywords: Slow potentials, Slow cortical potentials (SCP), Event-related potentials, DC potentials, Cognitive load, Attention, Working environment, Computer, Ergonomics, Individual difference
& Köpke, E. (2000). Motivations to control drinking behavior in
abstainers, moderate and heavy drinkers. Pharmacology, Biochemistry
& Behavior, 66(1), 169-174).
Abstract: Motives and motivational concepts to control quantity (Q) and frequency (F) of alcohol consumption were investigated in 192 participants using a questionnaire of motives to control drinking (MCD-Q/F) developed earlier. The daily quantity of consumption was assessed by the "30 day by beverage questionnaire". Participants were grouped into heavy or moderate drinkers (limits: females 40, males 60 gram alcohol/day) and abstainers. Analyses of motives showed the importance of car driving, controlling appetite/desire and prevention of impaired mental performance. The relative impact of motivational concepts were analysed by cluster analysis of motives revealing three clusters: (1) emotional concepts/fear of addiction, (2) physiological sensations/interaction with concrete actual plans, (3) cognitive concepts (plans, self-control, no impairment)/no desire. MANOVA of MCD-Q/F indicate highest scores for moderate drinkers and significant lower scores in heavy drinkers in controlling frequency of drinking (MCD-F). Group effect for emotional concepts failed significance, higher scores of physiological concepts were found in imbibers compared to abstainers, and scores of cognitive concepts were lower in heavy drinkers. Results indicate that for imbibers a reduced motivation to control frequency of drinking as well as low scores in cognitive concepts and a trend to high scores in emotional concepts are associated with heavy drinking.
Handler, B., & Trimmel, M. (1998). Zusammenhänge zwischen der Beurteilung von Nazi- und (primitiven) Sportspielen am Computer und sozialer Einstellung bei männlichen Jugendlichen. In J. Glück, O. Vitouch, M. Jirasko, & B. Rollett (Eds.), Perspektiven psychologischer Forschung in Österreich Band 2 (pp. 81-84). Wien: WUV-Universitätsverlag.
Kusmitsch, C., & Trimmel, M. (1998). Relationship of brain DC potential changes and scaled qualities of listening to short probes of music [Abstract]. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 30(1-2), 111-112.
Kusmitsch, C., & Trimmel, M. (1998). Hintergrundgeräusche und kortikale Informationsverarbeitung unter Berücksichtigung der Lärmempfindlichkeit. In J. Glück, O. Vitouch, M. Jiraschko, & B. Rollet (Eds.), Perspektiven psychologischer Forschung in Österreich Band 2 (pp. 145-148). Wien: WUV-Universitätsverlag.
Trimmel, M., Kunkel, V., Strässler, F., & Knerer, K. (1998). Brain DC potentials of a cognitive task and relationship to performance [Abstract]. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 30(1-2), 264-264.
M., & Schweiger, E. (1998). Effects of an ELF (50 Hz, 1 mT) electromagnetic
field (EMF) on concentration in visual attention, perception and memory
including effects of EMF sensitivity. Toxicology Letters, 96/97,
Abstract: To investigate psychological effects of an extremely low frequency (ELF)-electromagnetic field (EMF), an experiment with three conditions was designed. EMF field of 50 Hz and 1 mT accompanied by 45 dB SPL noise (EMF + noise), noise, and control. A group of 66 subjects (Ss) participated in the control and in one of the experimental conditions. The sequence of conditions (expositions) was balanced. Expositions were double-blind (except for the obvious control), lasted 1 h and were separated by a 1 h pause. During exposition Ss (three by three) performed tests on attention, perception, memory and filled out a psychological questionnaire. Statistical analysis (one-tailed probability) showed less attention (P < 0.05), perception (P < 0.05) and memory performance (P < 0.1) in Ss exposed to EMF + noise compared with control, whereas for noise versus control no difference was found. Comparing EMF + noise versus noise related to control, reduced perception, less memory performance and more discomfort was observed (P < 0.1). Dividing Ss according to their self-rated sensitivity to EMF, all differences disappeared in the low sensitivity group (N = 30) and were pronounced in sensitive Ss (N = 36). Results indicate an immediate reduction of cognitive performance in attention, perception and memory performance by a 50 Hz EMF of 1 mT. These effects seem to be modulated by the self-perception of sensitivity to EMF.
Trimmel, M., Strakonitzky, G., Handler, B., & Rastbichler, U. (1998). Computerspiel- und Fernsehzeiten in Abhänigkeit von Extzraversion/Neurotizismus. In J. Glück, O. Vitouch, M. Jirasko, & B. Rollett (Eds.), Perspektiven psychologischer Forschung in Österreich Band 2 (pp. 167-170). Wien: WUV-Universitätsverlag.
Trimmel, M., & Binder, G. A. (1998). Emotion & Kognition: Kortikale Informationsverarbeitung in Abhänigkeit von der Stimmung. In J. Glück, O. Vitouch, M. Jirasko, & B. Rollett (Eds.), Perspektiven psychologischer Forschung in Österreich Band 2 (pp. 149-152). Wien: WUV-Universitätsverlag.
Trimmel, M. (1998). Homo Informaticus - der Mensch als Subsystem des Computers. In A. Kolb, R. Esterbauer, & H.-W. Ruckenbauer (Eds.), Cyberethik Verantwortung in der digital vernetzten Welt (pp. 96-114). Stuttgart: Verlag W.Kohlhammer.
Trimmel, M., & Stanek, C. (1998). Motivationsfaktoren der Gesundheitsförderung. In W. Dür & J. M. Pelikan (Eds.), Qualität in der Gesundheitsförderung (pp. 77-91). Wien: Facultas Universitätsverlag.
M., & Huber, R. (1998). After-effects of human-computer interaction
indicated by P300 of the event-related brain potential. Ergonomics,
Abstract: After-effects of human-computer interaction (HCI) were investigated by using the P300 component of the event-related brain potential (ERP). Forty-nine subjects (naive non-users, beginners, experienced users, programmers) completed three paper/pencil tasks (text editing, solving intelligence test items, filling out a questionnaire on sensation seeking) and three HCI tasks (text editing, executing a tutor program or programming, playing Tetris). The sequence of 7-min tasks was randomized between subjects and balanced between groups. After each experimental condition ERPs were recorded during an acoustic discrimination task at F3, F4, Cz, P3 and P4. Data indicate that: (1) mental after-effects of HCI can be detected by P300 of the ERP; (2) HCI showed in general a reduced amplitude; (3) P300 amplitude varied also with type of task, mainly at F4 where it was smaller after cognitive tasks (intelligence test/programming) and larger after emotion-based tasks (sensation seeking/Tetris); (4) cognitive tasks showed shorter latencies; (5) latencies were widely location-independent (within the range of 356-358 ms at F3, F4, P3 and P4) after executing the tutor program or programming; and (6) all observed after-effects were independent of the user's experience in operating computers and may therefore reflect short-term after-effects only and no structural changes of information processing caused by HCI.
Trimmel, M., & Binder, G. A. (1998). Effects of film-induced emotions on N100 and P300 of a visually presented subsequent cognitive task [Abstract]. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 30(1-2), 108-109.
Trimmel, M. (1997). Neuropsychophysiologische Korrelate der mentalen Belastung durch Computertätigkeit. In E. Baumgartner (Ed.), Qualitätskriterien in der Arbeitsmedizin: Praxis, Ausbildung und Überwachung, Moderne Arbeitsysteme (u.a.) Telearbeit, Besonders schutzwürdige Personen am Arbeitsplatz (pp. 147-154). Hall in Tirol: Österreichische Gesellschaft für Arbeitsmedizin.
Trimmel, M. (1996). Bedingungen des Computerspiels und psychologische Auswirkumgen bei Jugendlichen. Informatik Forum, 10(4), 215-234.
Kohlbacher-Hess, M., & Trimmel, M. (1996). Transfereffekte beim Lernen von Computerprogrammen. In M. Jirasko (Ed.), Perspektiven psychologischer Forschung in Österreich (pp. 221-224). Wien: WUV-Universitätsverlag.
Schwager, U., & Trimmel, M. (1996). "Flusserleben" als intrinsischer Motivationsfaktor beim Computerspielen? In M. Jirasko (Ed.), Perspektiven psychologischer Forschung in Österreich (pp. 81-84). Wien: WUV-Universitätsverlag.
M., Kundi, M., Binder, G., Groll-Knapp, E., & Haider, M. (1996). Combined
effects of mental load and background noise on CNS activity indicated by
brain DC potentials. Environment International, 22, 83-92.
Abstract: To assess combined effects of noise and mental load on brain activity, DC potential shifts were evaluated. In a 3 x 2 x 3 x 5 repeated ANOVA design with Type of Noise (music sound, white noise, street noise) x Noise Intensity (no noise, 55dB[A], 75 dB[A]) x Mental Load (load vs. no load) x DC Recording Location (F3, F4, Cz, P3, P4 versus linked mastoids) 2-min epochs of exposure were analyzed in 18 subjects. Significant main effects were found for Type of Noise (white noise and street noise showing greater positive shifts than music sound), Mental Load (more positive shifts for mental load versus no mental load), and DC Recording Location. Statistically significant higher order interaction effects were also found. Low intensity of music sound diminished the mental-load DC shift, interpreted as a possible compensatory effect of soft music on mental load. The effect of mental load under street noise and white noise conditions depends on the DC potential caused by these background noises alone, showing a ceiling effect. Results indicate that DC shifts apparent during mental load are changed by acoustic stimulation additionally applied and that this effect is dependent on type of noise/sound and stimulus intensity.
Trimmel, M., Groll-Knapp, E., & Haider, M. (1996). P3 influenced by event-prededing dc shifts - brain information processing related to the actual functional state. In C. Ogura, Y. Koga, & M. Shimokochi (Eds.), Recent advances in event-related brain potential research (pp. 157-162). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
(1996). Neuropsychophysiologische Wirkung von Hintergrundlärm. In
M. Jirasko (Ed.), Perspektiven psychologischer Forschung in Österreich
(pp. 239-242). Wien: WUV-Universitätsverlag.
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