## 8.2.2 Ashurst and Hoover

[Phys.Rev.Lett 31(1973)206]

These authors use periodic boundary conditions in the directions; the upper and lower boundaries are replaced by layers containing trapped particles. The upper layer has a mean velocity while the bottom layer is at rest.

The desired shear rate is . We need an external force
 (8.18)

to achieve this. This force is proportional to the viscosity.

Again, the temperature will slowly increase due to the work done by the external force.
F. J. Vesely / University of Vienna