Meditation and Contemplation in High to Late Medieval Europe,
in: Eli Franco (Hg.): Yogic Perception, Meditation and Altered States of Consciousness, Wien 2009, 325-349.
In the Western European history of meditation and contemplation the period from the 12th to the 15th century differs significantly from the times both before and after. Earlier forms undergo important changes and the foundations are laid for spiritual practices of which several dominated until the 20th century. This article treats these trends and other related developments concentrating on Richard of St. Victor, the Scala Claustralium of Guigo II and the Clowde of Unknowyng.
Meditation and Contemplation in Hight to Late Medieval Europe (pdf)